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OPTICNANO Consulting

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.With the use of multi diode array and adapted collimation lenses source. an integrated, Imaging system can also be realized (multi sources setup) .The overall part of these equipments consist already of an embedded optical setup assembly around the body of a reflected/ transmitting light microscope. Such environment is described by Abraham et al.1 Similarly, the LPICM 2angular resolved polarimeter can be referenced: Integrated PSA, PSG, I. e., Polarization State Generator or Analyzer, components have been inserted in the optical mounting of a microscope embodiment. The reader will find more details for example in the full patent by Abraham et al. In the LPICM design the light source is an optical fiber of 600 microns. An optical lenses mounting ensures a spot size reduction of the beam diameter at the level of the sample. This optical adaptation system, (source and first lens), can be replaced by either a laser diode array with collimation lenses in case of imaging measurements or by to the output resonant cavity of a solid state laser for micro spot. A similar mounting system from ELDIM 3could also be easily transformed in a polarimeter introducing PSG and PSA plate in the design. Optical elements can be mechanically rotating elements, phase modulated like PM or ferroelectric crystals but they can also be retarder integrated spatial pixels. These pixels are preferably made of dielectric grid structures with critical dimension (CD), less than the wavelength of the light beam. This direct imaging acquisition, ( i. e. the block retarder array + analyzer), turns then a perfect and possible realization of fully integrated PSG or PSA component. A one piece retarder array can also be created with at least one pixel group, in which the major axis orientation of the individuals pixels are distributed other full 360° angular range, ( although 4 angles are sufficient) without any moving parts. The retarder array has to be a transparent structure and located as a part of the polarizer or analyzer film (both for PSG and PSA system). In fact, each point in the Fourier back plane configuration corresponds to only one incidence angle. The possibility to select each corresponding incidence angle value, within the numerical aperture of the objective, therefore exist. However these choices for micro integrated polarimetry are not unique. A full integrated system with no movable parts with the concept of a fast optical stokes polarimeter has been investigated by Veasey4. This other way is though, with fully integrated micro electro optics, components. Apparatus with a tracking and measuring Stokes vectors capability, can be made using integrated electro optical materials (such as lithium and lanthanum niobate, modified lead zirconate titanate). Incoming and outcoming light is accomplished through waveguides separately . Such an embodied ellipsometer can also be used for high resolution imaging, an example of such a setup has been disclosed by Q. Zhan , J. Leger5 several years ago From such equipment, one solves the very high resolution polarization effects through a high-Numerical-Aperture objective system. This has been accounted for using the Richards–Wolf vectorial diffraction model and geometrical optics model developed by numerical simulation. A 0.5 nm instrument sensitivity and 0.5 microns spatial resolution with a 632.8-nm illumination can be obtained in that way. As optical components evolved, most of them are scaling down their size, increasing also performances and introducing new capabilities. This is also together with a software empowerment (i. e., with parallel computing, robotics and large multiplexing): A different perspective can therefore be definitively seen in present future. This project consider such an embodiment, incorporating it inside a microscope. This microscope will gain capabilities which are normally achieved only with a bigger sized ex situ instrument. This later has usually only a 20 to 50 microns spot size resolution whereas with the micro scaling advantage one should be far beyond the today’s expected diffraction limits. Many new technologies appears being new key points in the developments of future instrumentation. They are based on miniaturization such as the level of products from MEMS and integrated optronics. They all can be coupled together turning in a very sophisticated opto mechanics,robotics computer vision and multi threading capabilities The use of new spectral /real time CCDs turns also monochromators useless.With this project , the general state of art of the SE Ellipso Polarimetry fields, i. e. Spectroscopic, Imaging, variable angle , polarimetry and spot size limits capabilities will be implemented together in a new Microscope device . This is , a complete low cost system which could be realized using integrated technology potentially Interfaced and within computer networks would provide remote control. With the use of deported database, it will be possible to process remote optical data in real time. The use of a microscope with an integrate SE polarimetric embodiments without movables parts assemblies furthermore, will enhance an yet unreached stability and repeatability. It will facilitate low cost dedicated application dissemination. This is a promising goal in the development of integrated metrology..

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