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OPTICNANO Consulting

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From these considerations, it can be summarized that there exist for Microelectronics materials, a region of interest still to investigate, today hardly available, without Synchrotron radiation facility and explicitly, the 10 to 40 ev photon energy range. Beyond this upper limit, few relevant properties are afforded (Photo emission domain), but below intrinsic short or long range order solid state behaviors are really valuable for example in the knowledge and development of material in advanced lithography at 127 nm and below, the detection of defects created in SiO2 is to be still investigated in the optics transparency employed for lithography, in scatterometry, periodic features and quantum dots sizes in IC devices are better suited to these photons energies. Few SE systems are today available at higher photon energy. SE makers begin to release a commercial SE going only up to 140nm. The designs of present today’s SE uv-fitted enables to reach a higher value, would be definitely an opening. Today, the spectral range limit comes from source itself i.e.,deuterium sources definitely quenched below 100nm and the MgF2 polarizers as well. Furthermore, grating monochromator design needs also to be revised.Up to 12 ev, SE has however yet yielded interesting results in several materials such as oxide, oxynitrides and lithography resists.Most were accomplished within the Bessy , Berlin and Elettra (Trieste) with the respective synchrotron line facilities.Besides this, considering applications using this new equipment,which should be more easily implemented, Today, one knows how to build a spectroscopic ellipsometer (SE) up to the 40 ev range. But literature works on this topic in ellipsometry and reflectivity refer to solid state physicists having access to synchrotron line facilities such as for example the Bessy line in Berlin. (2.5 to 35 ev source. Polarimeters have been already probed in that range.Even if they are certainly available through technical programs, such facilities do not fulfill industrial requisites: e.g., online tool with fast throughput for quality control purposes. Material properties already explored and reported, yield wealthy information: in the internal band structure of elements (observation of transitions between p s orbital of oxygen of metal oxygen bonds and rare earth p d electrons. These data can be also compared and correlated to two additional techniques as well, but deeply heavy, destructive and delicate to operate such as Photoemission (25-500ev) and energy electron loss spectroscopy (EELS) (10-50ev). There is a way to introduce such v-uv metrology with the new design of new modern light sources. Some already exists [7], heavy and inappropriate in a fab. From the practical point of view, an “easy-to-handle”, light source is not yet available in that spectral range, able to fulfill clean room requisite. This is the main fundamental problem to solve. Recent technology developments have been started with a miniaturized source, which would fit in this range of energies. For ten years ago, the use of laser plasma light sources were considered and also with the SHG technique. Recently in the 120 ev (10nm) lithography capillary discharge plasma sources are today available (but limited 10 to 20nm (70 to 120 ev))[8], although in that energy range, the lack of polarizers has been overcome with multiplayer optics and a SE setup turn much more sophisticated . To conclude and according to a general opinion, one has the feeling that present developments should yield in the next decade to a suitable miniaturized source and dedicated for spectroscopy in the 6-40ev ranges where intrinsic short or long range order solid state behaviors are really valuable for Microelectronics materials. Thus, advanced investigation corresponding to this option is to be considerate. A first goal of such a project should be to adapt the ellipsometry instrumentation to this in-a-near-future light source development. More precisely, several specifications have to be treated: Brewster Gold polarizers, transient systems (Photon counting and TOF technologies) adapted to these pulsed sources, photon counting photo multipliers PMT’s and in situ vacuum integration (thus being completely in the scope of Integrated Metrology). This can be achieved with two parallel actions. i) The first one being directly realized with the help of a synchrotron line facility and should remain at the end as a reference based system for general solid-state material studies. ii) As a counterpart in the second one, the SE and the adapted optics and electronic setup (mirrors, polarizers, driver card, software for data acquisition, grating monochromator, detector choice and calibration must be entirely transferable to an on-line system using these external available light sources. This second step is indeed possible by following the future development in vuv sources and in order to get the best matching between the synchrotron source design and what will be the final goal of this project, that is, a totally independent system for the next generation of future clean room integrated metrology equipment.




GGratingScatterometry models for IC design CD data

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Thick SiO2 on silicon substrate sample  Ellipsometry data ( Experiments : SE UV Ellipsometer at LETI . (unpublished 2008)


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