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From what we learned before...
Even though being far away...
Meta materials.. Polarimetry Mueller matrices Surface Analysis but what else??
e.g. with the Film Sense powerfull Instrument ... the RT300 from Film Sense 60seconds for only 49 points
or slower with other systems...
classical Mapping obtained with XY SE Mapping...2D acquisition takes a very long time isn't? Even with only 49 points
with 3D results SNOWRAY looks like that : Immediate picture!!! .If you get many data...
Is that a new way? ...Let's consider Plank 's law and Material Emissivity
Irradiated multi layers sample gives a unique signature
In the Infra Red related to respective material nature and respective layers stacks thicknesses
the IR Emissivity versus thickness can be thus calibrated.....provide then absolute thickness values..
with the SNOWRAY technique .. that's what we get
another wafer patented mapping technique
instantaneous measurement.compareto classical XY mapping..!!
A deep into wafer structure
with powerfull analysis since..for one detail..
when setup with In situ Ellipsometer with very fast acquisition rate (10ms)...
which provides an absolute real time calibration ...
Collaboration in Beta sites is opened worlwide ...
A new instrument a full real time thickness calibration .
Ag layer model (Francoeur et al 2013 JRT 75-85.)
and what can be evaluated....

Experiences

OSA Reviewer
A+ R A-

For the measurement of “thermal radiation” infrared thermometry uses a wave-length ranging between 1 µ and 20 µm. The intensity of the emitted radiation depends on the material. This material contingent constant is described with the help of the emissivity which is a known value for most material
s (►7 Emissivity).
Infrared thermometers are optoelectronic sensors. They calculate the surface temperature on the basis of the emitted infrared radiation from an object. The most important feature of infrared thermometers is that they enable the user to measure objects contactless. Consequently, these products help to measure the temperature of inaccessible or moving objects without difficulties.
 
OPTRIS 2020 08 05 15.50 04
 
 Figure 42: Main principle of non-contact thermometry
Infrared t
 Infrared thermometers basically consist of the following components:
  • Lens
Spectral filter 
 Detector
 Electronics (amplifier/ linearization/ signal processing)
 
The advantages of non-contact thermometry are clear - it supports:
 temperature measurements of moving or overheated objects and of objects in hazardous surroundings
 very fast response and exposure times
 measurement without inter-reaction, no influence on the
 measuring object
 non-destructive measurement
 long lasting measurement, no mechanical wear
 
OPTRIS 2020 08 05 15.50 05
 
Emissivity :
The intensity of infrared radiation, which is emitted by each body, depends on the temperature as well as on the radiation features of the surface material of the measuring object. The emissivity (ε – Epsilon) is used as a material constant factor to describe the ability of the body to emit infrared energy. It can range between 0 and 100 %. A “blackbody” is the ideal radiation source with an emissivity of 1.0 whereas a mirror shows an emissivity of 0.1.
OPTRIS 2020 08 05 15.50 05
Figure 44: Composition of IR radiation
OPTRIS 2020 08 05 15.51 07
 
Figure 45: Spectral emissivity of several materials: 1 Enamel, 2 Plaster, 3 Concrete, 4 Chamotte
 
If the emissivity chosen is too high, the infrared thermometer may display a temperature value which is much lower than the real temperature – assuming the measuring object is warmer than its surroundings. A low emissivity (reflective surfaces) carries the risk of inaccurate measuring results by interfering infrared radiation emitted by background objects (flames, heating systems, chamottes). To minimize measuring errors in such cases, the handling should be performed very carefully and the unit should be protected against reflecting radiation sources.
 
 Determination of unknown emissivity 
► First determine the actual temperature of the measuring object with a thermocouple or contact sensor. Second, measure the temperature with the infrared thermometer and modify the emissivity until the displayed result corresponds to the actual temperature.
► If you monitor temperatures of up to 380 °C you may place a special plastic sticker (emissivity dots – Part No.: ACLSED) onto the measuring object, which covers it completely
OPTRIS 2020 08 05 15.51 08
Figure 46: Plastic sticker at metal surface
Set the emissivity to 0.95 and take the temperature of the sticker. Afterwards, determine the temperature of the adjacent area on the measuring object and adjust the emissivity according to the value of the temperature of the sticker.
► Cove a part of the surface of the measuring object with a black, flat paint with an emissivity of 0.98. Adjust the emissivity of your infrared thermometer to 0.98 and take the temperature of the colored surface. Afterwards, determine the temperature of a directly adjacent area and modify the emissivity until the measured value corresponds to the temperature of the colored surface.
OPTRIS 2020 08 05 16.54 14
Figure 47: Shiny metal surface left and blackened metal surface right.
 
CAUTION: On all three methods the object temperature must be different from ambient temperature.
 
 
3 Characteristic emissivity
In case none of the methods mentioned above help to determine the emissivity you may use the emissivity table ► Appendix A and Appendix B. These are average values, only. The actual emissivity of a material depends on the following factors:
 temperature
 measuring angle
 geometry of the surface
 thickness of the material
 constitution of the surface (polished, oxidized, rough, sandblast)
 spectral range of the measurement
 transmissivity (e.g. with thin films)
 
OPTRIS 2020 08 05 17.03 15
Figure 48: Adjustment of the emissivity in the software PI Connect from OPTRIS software (menu Tools/ Configuration/ Device)
 
 

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SNOWRAY
SNOWRAY: A very nice step into future for industry quality control
From what we learned before...
Even though being far away...
Meta materials.. Polarimetry Mueller matrices Surface Analysis but what else??
e.g. with the Film Sense powerfull Instrument ... the RT300 from Film Sense 60seconds for only 49 points
or slower with other systems...
classical Mapping obtained with XY SE Mapping...2D acquisition takes a very long time isn't? Even with only 49 points
with 3D results SNOWRAY looks like that : Immediate picture!!! .If you get many data...
Is that a new way? ...Let's consider Plank 's law and Material Emissivity
Irradiated multi layers sample gives a unique signature
In the Infra Red related to respective material nature and respective layers stacks thicknesses
the IR Emissivity versus thickness can be thus calibrated.....provide then absolute thickness values..
with the SNOWRAY technique .. that's what we get
another wafer patented mapping technique
instantaneous measurement.compareto classical XY mapping..!!
A deep into wafer structure
with powerfull analysis since..for one detail..
One can focus on specific 3D defects detected ...
when setup with In situ Ellipsometer with very fast acquisition rate (10ms)...
Collaboration in Beta sites is opened worlwide ...
A new instrument a full real time thickness calibration .